Background & aims: Alcohol intake with circadian rhythm disruption (CRD) increases colon cancer risk. We hypothesized that eating during or around physiologic rest time, a common habit in modern society, causes CRD and investigated the mechanisms by which it promotes alcohol-associated colon carcinogenesis.
Methods: The effect of feeding time on CRD was assessed using B6 mice expressing a fusion protein of PERIOD2 and LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) were used to model colon polyposis and to assess the effects of feeding schedules, alcohol consumption, and prebiotic treatment on microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acid levels, colon inflammation, and cancer risk. The relationship between butyrate signaling and a proinflammatory profile was assessed by inactivating the butyrate receptor GPR109A.
Results: Eating at rest (wrong-time eating [WTE]) shifted the phase of the colon rhythm in PER2::LUC mice. In TS4Cre × APClox468 mice, a combination of WTE and alcohol exposure (WTE + alcohol) decreased the levels of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and of butyrate, reduced colonic densities of regulatory T cells, induced a proinflammatory profile characterized by hyperpermeability and an increased mucosal T-helper cell 17/regulatory T cell ratio, and promoted colorectal cancer. Prebiotic treatment improved the mucosal inflammatory profile and attenuated inflammation and cancer. WTE + alcohol-induced polyposis was associated with increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression. Decreased butyrate signaling activated the epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in vitro. The relationship between butyrate signaling and a proinflammatory profile was confirmed in human colorectal cancers using The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Conclusions: Abnormal timing of food intake caused CRD and interacts with alcohol consumption to promote colon carcinogenesis by inducing a protumorigenic inflammatory profile driven by changes in the colon microbiota and butyrate signaling. Accession number of repository for microbiota sequence data: raw FASTQ data were deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under project PRJNA523141.
Keywords: Alcohol; Butyrate; Circadian; Colon Cancer; Food Time; Microbiota.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.