Lead and osteoporosis: mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

Environ Res. 1988 Oct;47(1):79-94. doi: 10.1016/s0013-9351(88)80023-9.


Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentration after menopause. The results indicate that bone lead is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lead / metabolism*
  • Menopause / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / etiology*
  • Pregnancy


  • Lead