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Meta-Analysis
, 98 (44), e17788

Proton Pump Inhibitors and Hypomagnesemia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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Meta-Analysis

Proton Pump Inhibitors and Hypomagnesemia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Thawin Srinutta et al. Medicine (Baltimore).

Abstract

Background: Previous meta-analyses have suggested that there might be an association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the development of hypomagnesemia, although the conclusions were no definitive.

Methods: To provide an update on this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of all observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the development of hypomagnesemia. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1970 to June 2018) to identify observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the incidence and prevalence of hypomagnesemia.

Study eligibility criteria: In the absence of randomized controlled trials, we focused primarily on observational studies, including cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective, and prospective cohort studies. There was no limitation on sample size or study duration. Random-effect models meta-analyses were used to compute pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for binary variables.

Results: Sixteen observational studies were identified, including 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, and 1 cohort study, with a total of 131,507 patients. The pooled percentage of PPI users was 43.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.0%, 64.0%). Among PPI users, 19.4% (95% CI 13.8%, 26.5%) had hypomagnesemia compared to 13.5% (95% CI 7.9%, 22.2%) among nonusers. By meta-analysis, PPI use was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, with a pooled unadjusted OR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.26, 2.67; P = .002) and a pooled adjusted OR of 1.71 (95% CI 1.33, 2.19; P < .001). In subgroup analyses, high-dose PPI use was associated with higher odds for hypomagnesemia relative to low-dose PPI use (pooled adjusted OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.26, 3.59; P = .005).

Conclusion: Our findings are in support of the results of the previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, we found a dose-response between the PPI use and development of hypomagnesemia.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram of study selection.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Forest plot displaying the pooled adjusted odds ratio for hypomagnesemia among proton pump inhibitor users relative to nonusers.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Funnel plot of individual studies displaying the standard error by the log odds ratio for hypomagnesemia among proton pump inhibitor users (relative to nonusers). P = .66 by the Egger test.

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