Millets, cereals and grains play an important role in providing adequate nutrition and as well shown to possess beneficial effects on lifestyle disorders. Several studies on millet seed proteins and their hydrolysates, have demonstrated their physiological role in the prevention of chronic diseases by acting on various molecular targets. In recent years, the importance of food derived bioactive peptides is surging at an exponential rate in both nutraceutical and pharmaceutical research. A considerable number of earlier reviews have discussed their role in improving the human health. However, a concise review on millet-derived peptides and their purported role in human health is still lacking. Thus, this review provides an extensive survey of key bioactive millet peptides (BAMPs) reported till date in a succinct form. BAMPs are derived through enzymatic hydrolysis of the seed proteins and are known to perform several regulatory functions in vitro and in vivo. Several in silico and in vitro studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticancer and antidiabetic properties of BAMPs. Even though, the biological application of these peptides profoundly depends on the size and structure, the absorption in target tissues and bioavailability also play a critical role. Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss and summarize several key BAMPs from various millets reported so far, focusing on their proposed multifaceted biochemical activity, production, purification and mechanism of action. In addition, some of the key parameters for the successful delivery and bioavailability of these peptides are also highlighted. Nevertheless, in-depth investigations on the in vivo mode of action of BAMPs crucial in future to validate and translate these observed effects to human health benefits.
Keywords: Bioactive millet peptides (BAMPs); anticancer; antidiabetic; antihypertensive; antimicrobial: anti-inflammatory.