Sleep inertia: current insights

Nat Sci Sleep. 2019 Aug 22;11:155-165. doi: 10.2147/NSS.S188911. eCollection 2019.


Sleep inertia, or the grogginess felt upon awakening, is associated with significant cognitive performance decrements that dissipate as time awake increases. This impairment in cognitive performance has been observed in both tightly controlled in-laboratory studies and in real-world scenarios. Further, these decrements in performance are exaggerated by prior sleep loss and the time of day in which a person awakens. This review will examine current insights into the causes of sleep inertia, factors that may positively or negatively influence the degree of sleep inertia, the consequences of sleep inertia both in the laboratory and in real-world settings, and lastly discuss potential countermeasures to lessen the impact of sleep inertia.

Keywords: cognitive performance; countermeasures; grogginess.