Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 Jul 19;33:239.
doi: 10.11604/pamj.2019.33.239.15945. eCollection 2019.

Risk Factors Associated With Streptococcus pneumonia Carriage in Children Under Five Years Old With Acute Respiratory Infection in Niger

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Risk Factors Associated With Streptococcus pneumonia Carriage in Children Under Five Years Old With Acute Respiratory Infection in Niger

Ibrahim Dan Dano et al. Pan Afr Med J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Introduction: Streptococcus pneumonia is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in children, and pneumococcal carriage is an important source of horizontal spread of these pathogens within the community.

Methods: A questionnaire was addressed to parents for the collection of sociodemographic and medical information. Nasopharyngeal swabbing was processed using a molecular method. We used logistic regression models to examine independent associations between pneumococcal carriage and potential risk factors. All associations with a p-value of < 0.25 in the bivariate regression analyses were subsequently entered in the multivariate regression model.

Results: A total of 637 children aged 1 to 59 months admitted for acute respiratory infection were included. The rate of respiratory virus carriage was 76%, whereas that of bacteria was 47% and that of bacteria-virus co-colonization was 42%. A bivariate analysis showed that carriage was not related to gender, father's or mother's education level, father's occupation, type of housing or lighting, or passive exposure to cigarette smoking in the house. It was also not linked to complete vaccination with PCV-13 or PPSV-23 and antibiotic treatment prior to hospitalization. A multivariate analysis showed that carriage was related to age greater than 3 months, maternal occupation, house flooring type, and co-colonization of another bacterium and virus.

Conclusion: These results can be helpful to understand the dynamics of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization; they confirm the interest of vaccinating infants before the age of 3 months with appropriate vaccine to prevent spread nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumococcal diseases in children.

Keywords: Risk factors; S. pneumonia; children under five years; nasopharyngeal carriage.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Preceding nasopharyngeal bacterial and viral carriage
Figure 2
Figure 2
NP carriage of main pathogens detected according to age

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. O'Brian Katherine L, Lara JJ, James PW, Emily Henkle, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Nathalie McCall, et al. Burden of diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet. 2009;374(9693):893–902. - PubMed
    1. Bogaert D, de Groot R, Hermans PWH. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization: the key to pneumococcal disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(3):144–154. - PubMed
    1. Cohen R, Levy C, Bingen E, Bechet S, Derkx V, Werner A, Koskas M, Varon E. Nasopharyngeal carriage of children 6 to 60 months during the implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Arch Pediatr. 2012;19(10):1132–1139. - PubMed
    1. Sharma Dolly, Baughman Wendy, Holst Amy, Stephanie Thomas, Delois Jackson MS, Carvalho da Gloria Maria, et al. Pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease in children before introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine: comparison with the era before 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(2):e45–e53. - PubMed
    1. Kazunori Oishi, Kazuyo Tamura, Yukihiro Akeda. Global Control of Pneumococcal Infections by Pneumococcal vaccines. Tropical Medicine and health. 2014;42(2):s83–s86. - PMC - PubMed

MeSH terms

Substances

Feedback