Psychometric properties of the Community Violence-Prevention Activation Measure (CV-PAM): Evaluating provider activation toward community violence prevention

J Community Psychol. 2020 Mar;48(2):545-561. doi: 10.1002/jcop.22271. Epub 2019 Nov 6.


This study reports on the conceptualization of activation, and the development and psychometrics of the Community Violence-Prevention Activation Measure (CV-PAM). The CV-PAM was adapted from the Patient Activation Measure (PAM; Hibbard et al., 2004, Health Serv Res, 39, 1005-1026; Hibbard et al., 2005, Health Serv Res, 40, 1918-1930) for use among a workforce servicing youth exposed to community violence. Activation toward community violence prevention is defined as a process in which community members are activated to prevent violence, believe they have important roles to play in violence prevention and supporting the well-being of community members. Activated community members have a good understanding of the factors that contribute to violence and they apply skills and strategies that are consistent with prevention efforts. Six hundred and ninety-four youth providers completed the 18-item CV-PAM to describe their level of activation toward community violence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and demonstrated that a three factor versus a four factor structure of activation (modeled after PAM) held together. The three factors included (a) belief that an active role is important to address community violence; (b) having the confidence and knowledge to take action around community violence prevention; (c) taking action: frequency of participation and responsiveness to community needs. The proposed fourth factor, staying the course under stress, did not have any qualifying loadings, and thus, could not be interpreted. CV-PAM performed well in tests of reliability and validity. The CV-PAM appears to be a precise, valid, reliable, and useful measure. Implications suggest that using this tool is potentially the first step toward understanding activation among engaged providers and a stepping stone toward increased involvement in community violence prevention through implementation and dissemination efforts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Community Networks*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Juvenile Delinquency / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Program Development*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Violence / prevention & control*
  • Young Adult