Aim: To evaluate the effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor vildagliptin on glycaemic and energy expenditure responses during intraduodenal fat infusion, as well as the contribution of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signalling, in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
Methods: A total of 15 people with T2DM managed by diet and/or metformin (glycated haemoglobin 49.3 ± 2.1 mmol/mol) were studied on three occasions (two with vildagliptin and one with placebo) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. On each day, vildagliptin 50 mg or placebo was given orally, followed by intravenous exendin (9-39) 600 pmol/kg/min, on one of the two vildagliptin treatment days, or 0.9% saline over 180 minutes. At between 0 and 120 minutes, a fat emulsion was infused intraduodenally at 2 kcal/min. Energy expenditure, plasma glucose and glucose-regulatory hormones were evaluated.
Results: Intraduodenal fat increased plasma GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin and glucagon, and energy expenditure, and decreased plasma glucose (all P < 0.05). On the two intravenous saline days, plasma glucose and glucagon were lower, plasma intact GLP-1 was higher (all P < 0.05), and energy expenditure tended to be lower after vildagliptin (P = 0.08) than placebo. On the two vildagliptin days, plasma glucose, glucagon and GLP-1 (both total and intact), and energy expenditure were higher during intravenous exendin (9-39) than saline (all P < 0.05).
Conclusions: In well-controlled T2DM during intraduodenal fat infusion, vildagliptin lowered plasma glucose and glucagon, and tended to decrease energy expenditure, effects that were mediated by endogenous GLP-1.
Keywords: DPP-4 inhibitor; GLP-1; energy regulation; glucagon; glycaemic control; type 2 diabetes.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.