1. In order to test the hypothesis that the alcoholic cardiomyopathy under partial catalase inhibition is associated with the activation of lipid peroxidation in cardiomyocytes (Panchenko et al., Experientia 43, 580-581, 1987), the effects of ethanol and catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (aminotriazole) on rat heart and liver content of reduced glutathione and on the activity of enzymes related to peroxide metabolism: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were investigated. 2. In accordance with the data obtained by Kino (J. molec, cell. Cardiol. 13, 5-12, 1981), when ethanol (36% of dietary calories) and aminotriazole were simultaneously administered an alcoholic cardiomyopathy developed while in the liver moderate fatty degeneration was revealed. 3. Chronic combined or separate administration of ethanol and aminotriazole was shown to increase glutathione concentration and glutathione-S-transferase activity in rat liver. In the groups of animals which received isocaloric carbohydrates in the diet instead of ethanol the liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was increased. 4. Acute and chronic aminotriazole injections led to catalase inactivation and in the latter case also to inhibition of the liver superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. 5. Ethanol and aminotriazole treatment did not alter the glutathione level and the activity of all enzymes tested (except catalase) in rat myocardium.