The Effects of a Whey Protein and Guar Gum-Containing Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycaemia, Small Intestinal Absorption and Blood Pressure in Healthy Older Subjects

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 5;11(11):2666. doi: 10.3390/nu11112666.


A whey protein/guar gum preload reduces postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetes through slowing gastric emptying. However, gastric emptying has previously been assessed using a stable isotope breath test technique, which cannot discriminate between slowing of gastric emptying and small intestinal absorption. This preload also may be useful in the management of postprandial hypotension. We evaluated the effects of a whey protein/guar preload on gastric emptying, glucose absorption, glycaemic/insulinaemic and blood pressure (BP) responses to an oral glucose load. Eighteen healthy older participants underwent measurements of gastric emptying (scintigraphy), plasma glucose and insulin, glucose absorption, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow, BP and heart rate (HR) after ingesting a 50 g glucose drink, with or without the preload. The preload reduced plasma glucose (p = 0.02) and serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) (p = 0.003), and increased plasma insulin (p = 0.03). There was no difference in gastric emptying or BP between the two days. The reduction in plasma glucose on the preload day was related to the reduction in glucose absorption (r = 0.71, p = 0.002). In conclusion, the glucose-lowering effect of the preload may relate to delayed small intestinal glucose absorption and insulin stimulation, rather than slowing of gastric emptying.

Keywords: gastric emptying; guar gum; postprandial glycaemia; postprandial hypotension; preload; whey protein.

MeSH terms

  • 3-O-Methylglucose / blood
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Galactans / pharmacology*
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects*
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Intestinal Absorption / drug effects*
  • Intestine, Small / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mannans / pharmacology*
  • Plant Gums / pharmacology*
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects
  • Whey Proteins / pharmacology*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Galactans
  • Insulin
  • Mannans
  • Plant Gums
  • Whey Proteins
  • 3-O-Methylglucose
  • guar gum