Identification of DHODH as a therapeutic target in small cell lung cancer

Sci Transl Med. 2019 Nov 6;11(517):eaaw7852. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw7852.

Abstract

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung cancer subtype with extremely poor prognosis. No targetable genetic driver events have been identified, and the treatment landscape for this disease has remained nearly unchanged for over 30 years. Here, we have taken a CRISPR-based screening approach to identify genetic vulnerabilities in SCLC that may serve as potential therapeutic targets. We used a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) library targeting ~5000 genes deemed to encode "druggable" proteins to perform loss-of-function genetic screens in a panel of cell lines derived from autochthonous genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of SCLC, lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Cross-cancer analyses allowed us to identify SCLC-selective vulnerabilities. In particular, we observed enhanced sensitivity of SCLC cells toward disruption of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a key enzyme in this pathway, reduced the viability of SCLC cells in vitro and strongly suppressed SCLC tumor growth in human patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and in an autochthonous mouse model. These results indicate that DHODH inhibition may be an approach to treat SCLC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy
  • Adenocarcinoma / enzymology
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Animals
  • Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacology
  • Biphenyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / drug therapy
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / enzymology
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • DCMP Deaminase / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Lung Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Mice
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy*
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / metabolism
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Pyrimidines / biosynthesis
  • Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / drug therapy*
  • Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / enzymology*
  • Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology
  • Survival Analysis
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

Substances

  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Pyrimidines
  • brequinar
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors
  • dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
  • DCMP Deaminase
  • pyrimidine

Supplementary concepts

  • Pancreatic Carcinoma