Temporal relationships of cholecystokinin release, pancreatobiliary secretion, and gastric emptying of a mixed meal

Gastroenterology. 1988 Nov;95(5):1344-50. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(88)90371-x.


The influence of gastric emptying of nutrients on plasma cholecystokinin and pancreatobiliary functions is poorly understood. We therefore temporally related the emptying of fat, protein, and glucose of a mixed meal to release of the gut hormones cholecystokinin, pancreatic polypeptide, and peptide YY and outputs of trypsin, lipase, bilirubin, and bile salts. Five healthy volunteers with a multilumen duodenal tube ingested a mixed meal with phase-specific markers for the aqueous phase, liquid fat, solid fat, and solid protein phases. Duodenal passage was determined by intraduodenal infusion of a second set of phase-specific nonabsorbable markers. Plasma cholecystokinin levels and pancreatobiliary secretions rose to a maximum at 30-60 min and then gradually declined (p less than 0.01) despite continued entry of protein and fat into the duodenum throughout the whole 4-h experimental period. High levels of both pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY were observed in the last 2 h of the experiment. Release of factors capable of inhibiting cholecystokinin release and subsequently pancreatobiliary secretion may be responsible for the observed time-course.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bile Acids and Salts / analysis
  • Bilirubin / analysis
  • Cholecystokinin / blood
  • Cholecystokinin / metabolism*
  • Food*
  • Gastric Emptying*
  • Gastrointestinal Contents / analysis
  • Humans
  • Lipase / analysis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide / blood
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide / metabolism*
  • Peptide YY
  • Peptides / metabolism*
  • Trypsin / analysis


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Peptides
  • Peptide YY
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Lipase
  • Trypsin
  • Bilirubin