Background: Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a congenital disorder that is usually asymptomatic, but that increases the risks of kidney stones and infectious disease. However, renal outcomes such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with HSK remain unclear.
Methods: In total, 146 patients with HSK (age of ≥20 years) from two tertiary hospitals were included in this study. Control individuals who underwent medical check-ups were selected by matching for age, sex, serum creatinine level, hypertension and diabetes. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the risks of ESRD and all-cause mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple variables.
Results: The proportions of HSK-related complications for obstruction, kidney stones, urinary tract infection and urogenital cancer were 26, 25, 19 and 4%, respectively. During the median follow-up period of 9 years (maximum 32 years), the incidence of ESRD was 2.6/10 000 person-years. The risk of ESRD in patients with HSK was higher than in control individuals [adjusted HR = 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-50.47]. All-cause mortality did not differ between the two groups (adjusted HR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.08-4.29).
Conclusions: Patients with HSK are at risk of ESRD, which may be attributable to the high prevalence of complications. Accordingly, these patients should be regarded as having chronic kidney disease and require regular monitoring of both kidney function and potential complications.
Keywords: end-stage renal disease; horseshoe kidney; mortality; stone.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.