In-depth knowledge of cell metabolism and nutrient uptake mechanisms can lead to the development of a tool for improving acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation performance and help to overcome bottlenecks in the process, such as the high cost of substrates and low production rates. Over 300 genes potentially encoding transport of amino acids, metal ions, vitamins and carbohydrates were identified in the genome of the butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598, based on similarity searches in protein function databases. Transcriptomic data of the genes were obtained during ABE fermentation by RNA-Seq experiments and covered acidogenesis, solventogenesis and sporulation. The physiological roles of the selected 81 actively expressed transport genes were established on the basis of their expression profiles at particular stages of ABE fermentation. This article describes how genes encoding the uptake of glucose, iron, riboflavin, glutamine, methionine and other nutrients take part in growth, production and stress responses of C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598. These data increase our knowledge of transport mechanisms in solventogenic Clostridium and may be used in the selection of individual genes for further research.