T-cell activation releases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), inducing cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) influx. In turn, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb) phosphorylates IP3 to negatively regulate and thereby tightly control Ca2+ fluxes that are essential for mature T-cell activation and differentiation and protection from cell death. Itpkb pathway inhibition increases intracellular Ca2+, induces apoptosis of activated T cells, and can control T-cell-mediated autoimmunity. In this study, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches to inhibit Itpkb signaling as a means of controlling graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Murine-induced, Itpkb-deleted (Itpkb-/-) T cells attenuated acute GVHD in 2 models without eliminating A20-luciferase B-cell lymphoma graft-versus-leukemia (GVL). A highly potent, selective inhibitor, GNF362, ameliorated acute GVHD without impairing GVL against 2 acute myeloid leukemia lines (MLL-AF9-eGFP and C1498-luciferase). Compared with FK506, GNF362 more selectively deleted donor alloreactive vs nominal antigen-responsive T cells. Consistent with these data and as compared with FK506, GNF362 had favorable acute GVHD and GVL properties against MLL-AF9-eGFP cells. In chronic GVHD preclinical models that have a pathophysiology distinct from acute GVHD, Itpkb-/- donor T cells reduced active chronic GVHD in a multiorgan system model of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), driven by germinal center reactions and resulting in target organ fibrosis. GNF362 treatment reduced active chronic GVHD in both BO and scleroderma models. Thus, intact Itpkb signaling is essential to drive acute GVHD pathogenesis and sustain active chronic GVHD, pointing toward a novel clinical application to prevent acute or treat chronic GVHD.
© 2020 by The American Society of Hematology.