The influence of tobacco smoke exposure on selected markers of oxidative stress, kidneys and liver function in the serum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

Pharmacol Rep. 2019 Dec;71(6):1293-1298. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2019.07.012. Epub 2019 Aug 1.


Background: The significance of the free radicals is emphasized in the pathophysiology of diabetes and the progression of chronic diabetic complications. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of developing type II diabetes and intensifies pathophysiological processes during the development of type I diabetes. Tobacco smoke is also additional source of free radicals. Moreover, smoking causes variety of adverse effects on organs, that have no direct contact with the tobacco smoke itself. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoke on the serum concentrations of relevant oxidative stress markers such as total protein (TP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as renal (creatinine, urea) and liver function (alkaline phosphatase, ALP; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST) among animals with induced diabetes after administration of a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip).

Methods: The markers of oxidative stress and biochemical parameters were determined using spectrophotometric methods. As a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke, cotinine was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD).

Results: Tobacco smoke exposure of diabetic rats was manifested by significantly elevated liver enzymes activity - ALT (p < 0.05) and ALP (p < 0.01), higher creatinine and urea concentration (p < 0.01), lower GSH amount (p < 0.05), and higher GST activity (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Tobacco smoking induce liver and renal damage through the mechanisms including increased oxidative stress.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Oxidative stress; Rat model; Streptozotocin; Tobacco smoke.

MeSH terms

  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Alanine Transaminase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / blood
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / blood
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Smoke / adverse effects
  • Streptozocin / pharmacology
  • Superoxide Dismutase / blood
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Smoke
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Streptozocin
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase
  • Glutathione