Review: Danon disease: Review of natural history and recent advances

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2020 Jun;46(4):303-322. doi: 10.1111/nan.12587. Epub 2019 Nov 25.


Danon disease is a severe multisystem disorder clinically characterized by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy and mental retardation in male patients, and by a milder phenotype (predominantly involving cardiac muscle) in female patients. The disease is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait. The primary deficiency of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) causes disruption of autophagy, leading to an impaired fusion of lysosomes to autophagosomes and biogenesis of lysosomes. We surveyed over 500 Danon disease patients reported in the literature from the first description to the present, in order to summarize the clinical, pathological and molecular data and treatment perspectives. An early molecular diagnosis is of crucial importance for genetic counselling and for therapeutic interventions: in male patients, the prognosis is poor due to rapid progression towards heart failure, and only heart transplantation modifies the disease course.

Keywords: Danon disease; LAMP-2; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; vacuolar myopathy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIb* / diagnosis
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIb* / genetics
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIb* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male