Spontaneous (not experimentally induced) systemic hypertension was detected in 5 male dogs that were examined because of apparent blindness caused by intraocular hemorrhage and/or retinal detachment. Secondary causes of hypertension, including renal, adrenal, and thyroid disease, were investigated. Four of the dogs had glomerulonephropathy, renal insufficiency, and proteinuria. Four dogs had compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertension in 4 of 5 dogs was associated with glomerulosclerosis with chronic renal insufficiency, bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia, adrenocortical adenoma with renal amyloidosis, and immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with chronic renal insufficiency, respectively. The fifth dog was determined to have essential hypertension. The dogs were treated for their primary diseases. Sodium restriction alone was inadequate to reduce blood pressure; 4 of the dogs also required antihypertensive medications.