Since acellular vaccines (ACV) were introduced in Australia, epidemic Bordetella pertussis strains changed from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster II to SNP cluster I. Our previous proteomic analysis identified potential proteomic adaptations in the whole cell and secretome of SNP cluster I. Additionally, current ACVs were shown to be less efficacious against cluster I in mice models and there is a pressing need to discover new antigens to improve the ACV. One important source of novel antigens is the surfaceome. Therefore, in this study we established surface shaving in B. pertussis to compare the surfaceome of SNP cluster I (L1423) and II (L1191), and identify novel surface antigens for vaccine development. Surface shaving using 1 μg of trypsin for 5 min identified 126 proteins with the most abundant being virulence-associated and known outer membrane proteins. Cell viability counts showed minimal lysis from shaving. The proportion of immunogenic proteins was higher in the surfaceome than in the whole cell and secretome. Key differences in the surfaceome were identified between SNP cluster I and II, consistent with those identified in the whole cell proteome and secretome. These differences include unique transport proteins and decreased immunogenic proteins in L1423, and provides further evidence of proteomic adaptation in SNP cluster I. Finally, a comparison of proteins in each sub-proteome identified 22 common proteins. These included 11 virulence proteins (Prn, PtxA, FhaB, CyaA, TcfA, SphB1, Vag8, BrkA, BopD, Bsp22 and BipA) and 11 housekeeping proteins (TuF, CtpA, TsF, OmpH, GltA, SucC, SucD, FusA, GroEL, BP3330 and BP3561) which were immunogenic, essential and consistently expressed thus demonstrating their potential as future targets. This study established surface shaving in B. pertussis, confirmed key expression differences and identified unknown surface proteins which may be potential vaccine antigens.
Keywords: Acellular vaccine; Bordetella pertussis; Comparative proteomics; Housekeeping proteins; Moonlighting proteins; Pathogen evolution; Surface shaving; Surfaceome; Vaccine candidates; Whole cell vaccine.
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