Effect of photodynamic therapy on gingival inflammation in patients with thalassemia

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2020 Mar;29:101595. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.101595. Epub 2019 Nov 5.


Background: To evaluate the role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunct to full-mouth ultrasonic scaling (FMUS) in reducing inflammation and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in thalassemia major (TM) patients with gingivitis.

Materials and methods: Thirty patients were randomized into two groups; Group A: PDT + FMUS and Group B: FMUS alone. Clinical periodontal parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BoP) and probing depth (PD) were measured. Levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. All measurements were performed at baseline (T0), 6 weeks (T6) and 12 weeks (T12), respectively.

Results: For PI and GI, the reduction in Group A (p < 0.001) was higher than Group B (p < 0.05) at T12. Intra-group comparison between T6 and T12 showed statistical significance in both the groups (p < 0.01). The inter-group mean differences (Δ0-6 and Δ0-12) for both deltas showed statistical significance (p = 0.01). For BoP, no significant differences were seen until the end of T12 in both groups. The BoP in Group A reduced by a significant margin at T6 and remained less high by the end of T12 compared with group B (p = 0.02). Significant reduction in both IL-6 and TNF-α from T0 to T6 were seen in both groups. However, only for TNF-α that the intra-group differences were statistically significantly different from T0 to T12. The GCF levels of TNF-α in Group A remained less high by the end of T12 compared with group B (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The adjunctive role of PDT in the reduction of clinical and immunological signs of inflammation in TM patients seem to be effective in the short term.

Keywords: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; Dental scaling; Gingivitis; Thalassemia major.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid
  • Gingivitis* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Photochemotherapy* / methods
  • Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • Thalassemia*


  • Photosensitizing Agents