A 2,598-base-pair (bp) SalI-HincII DNA fragment has been cloned which codes for vanillate demethylase, the enzyme responsible for the demethylation of vanillate (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate) to protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate). Complementation and insertional inactivation experiments have shown that this fragment carries two genes (vanA and vanB) which are predominantly cotranscribed from a promoter upstream of vanA. Nucleotide sequencing of the SalI-HincII fragment confirmed the genetic data: two open reading frames of 987 and 942 bp were present in the transcribed orientation. These had a very high G + C content in the third base of each codon, which is characteristic of Pseudomonas chromosomal genes. Expression of the genes in Escherichia coli with the T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system gave rise to two polypeptides of 36 and 33 kilodaltons which could be identified by deletion analysis as the products of vanA and vanB, respectively. A search of the protein sequence data bank indicated that the vanB gene product was related to the ferredoxin family.