Psychiatric disorders such as addiction (substance use and addictive disorders), depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are severe, complex, multifactorial mental disorders that carry a high social impact, enormous public health costs, and various comorbidities as well as premature morbidity. Their neurobiological foundation is still not clear. Therefore, it is difficult to uncover new set of genes and possible genetic markers of these disorders since the understanding of the molecular imbalance leading to these disorders is not complete. The integrative approach is needed which will combine genomics and epigenomics; evaluate epigenetic influence on genes and their influence on neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones; examine gene × gene and gene × environment interplay; and identify abnormalities contributing to development of these disorders. Therefore, novel genetic approaches based on systems biology focused on improvement of the identification of the biological underpinnings might offer genetic markers of addiction, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and PTSD. These markers might be used for early prediction, detection of the risk to develop these disorders, novel subtypes of the diseases and tailored, personalized approach to therapy.
Keywords: Addiction; Depression; Eating disorders; Genetics; Markers; PTSD; Schizophrenia.