Emerging therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan;145(1):38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.10.027. Epub 2019 Nov 6.


Despite advances in the pathologic understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), as of yet, no single agent has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat EoE. Off-label, EoE is currently treated by using the 3 Ds: drugs (particularly swallowed topical corticosteroids), dietary restriction, and endoscopic dilation. In the recent past, considerable progress in terms of EoE treatment has been made: (1) new EoE-specific steroid formulations optimizing mucosal deposition have been developed, which has culminated in recent approval of a budesonide effervescent tablet in Europe; (2) biologics used for other TH2-mediated diseases, such as allergic asthma and atopic eczema, as well as purpose-developed biologics, have been studied in phase II trials in patients with EoE; and (3) novel dietary restriction strategies have evolved. Finally, further insights into the pathogenesis of EoE have revealed several novel disease mediators that might be targeted in the future. In the following article we will discuss recent advances in EoE treatment with regard to swallowed topical steroids, biological agents, dietary approaches, and novel molecular targets.

Keywords: Eosinophilic esophagitis; biologics; diet; steroids; treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use*
  • Budesonide / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
  • Diet Therapy*
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis / immunology
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis / pathology
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Off-Label Use*


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Budesonide