This review focusses on novel findings in atrial fibrillation mechanisms derived from mapping studies. Recent panoramic mapping techniques have identified 2 arrhythmic mechanisms of interest, namely, rotational (rotors) and ectopic focal activations as drivers of atrial fibrillation. Epicardial adipose tissue and fatty infiltration into the myocardium have been described as novel substrates for atrial fibrillation. There is increasing appreciation that the thin atrial walls harbor a complex 3-dimensional electrostructural substrate to contribute to atrial fibrillation sustenance. Further research is warranted to advance the field toward more targeted therapy.
Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Catheter ablation; Drivers; Mechanism; Remodeling.
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