Introduction: The results of standard chemotherapy in lung cancer are not very satisfactory, so it is important to identify genetic mutations that provide targeted therapies. Recent reports have suggested influences of racial difference on the frequency of mutation in lung cancer. We aimed to determine the frequency and regional distribution of genetic mutations of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Turkey.
Materials and methods: Regional distribution of genetic mutations in lung cancer in Turkey (REDIGMA) study was carried out as a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study in a large number of centers in which lung cancer patients were followed and could perform genetic mutation analysis on patients' biopsy materials.
Result: The 703 patients (77.7% male, mean age 63.3 ± 12.5 years) who were diagnosed as NSCLC from 25 different centers were included in the study. Tumor samples from patients were reported as 87.1% adenocarcinoma, 6.4% squamous cell carcinoma and 6.5% other. Mutation tests were found to be positive in 18.9% of these patients. The mutations were 69.9% EGFR, 26.3% ALK, 1.6% ROS and 2.2% PDL. Mutations were higher in women and non-smokers (p<0.000, p<0.001). Again, the frequency of mutations in adenocarcinoma was higher in metastatic disease. There was no difference between the patient's age, area of residence, comorbidity and clinical stage and mutation frequency.
Conclusions: Our study revealed that the EGFR mutation rate in Turkey with NSCLC was similar to East European, African-American and Caucasian patients, and was lower than in East Asia.