High LDL levels lessen bone destruction during antigen-induced arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and function

Bone. 2020 Jan:130:115140. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.115140. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by severe joint inflammation and bone destruction as the result of increased numbers and activity of osteoclasts. RA is often associated with metabolic syndrome, whereby elevated levels of LDL are oxidized into oxLDL, which might affect osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we induced antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in Apoe-/- mice, which spontaneously develop high LDL levels, to investigate the effects of high LDL/oxLDL levels on osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction. Whereas basal levels of bone resorption were comparable between naive WT and Apoe-/- mice, induction of AIA resulted in a significant reduction of bone destruction in Apoe-/- mice as compared to WT controls. In line with that, the TRAP+ area on the cortical bone was significantly decreased. The absence of Apoe did affect neither the numbers of CD11b+Ly6Chigh and CD11b-/Ly6Chigh osteoclast precursors (OCPs) in the BM of naïve mice nor their in vitro osteoclastogenic potential as indicated by comparable mRNA expression of osteoclast markers. Addition of oxLDL, but not LDL, to pre-osteoclasts from day 3 and mature osteoclasts from day 6 of osteoclastogenesis strongly reduced the number of TRAP+ osteoclasts and their resorptive capacity. This coincided with a decreased expression of various osteoclast markers. Interestingly, oxLDL significantly lowered the expression of osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar) and the DNAX adaptor protein-12 encoding gene Tyrobp, which regulate the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) co-stimulation pathway that is strongly involved in osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, our findings suggest that under inflammatory conditions in the joint, high LDL levels lessen bone destruction during AIA, probably by formation of oxLDL that inhibits osteoclast formation and activity through modulation of the ITAM-signaling.

Keywords: Bone destruction; High LDL levels; ITAM co-stimulation pathway; Osteoclasts; oxLDL.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid*
  • Bone Resorption*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Osteoclasts
  • Osteogenesis
  • RANK Ligand

Substances

  • RANK Ligand