Effect of omega-3 rich diet on the response of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) infected with Newcastle disease virus or avian influenza virus H9N2

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2020 Feb;228:108668. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.108668. Epub 2019 Nov 9.


This study was performed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 supplementation on growth performance, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres, gene expression and histopathology in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2. One hundred, 40-day-old male quails were divided into 5 groups: G1, fed a control basal diet; G2A, infected with NDV; G2B, infected with H9N2; G3A, infected with NDV and given omega-3, and G3B, infected with H9N2 and given omega-3. The dietary omega-3 supplementation was continued for 4 weeks: two weeks before infection and two weeks after intranasal infection with virulent NDV and AIV H9N2. Our results revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in growth performance, HI antibody titres, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, mortality, viral shedding rates, immunological parameters, and histopathological lesions between the treated (G3A and G3B) and untreated (G2A and G2B) groups. In conclusion, dietary omega-3 supplementation for 4 weeks can improve growth performance and alleviate the deleterious immunological and pathological effects of NDV and AIV H9N2 infection in quails.

Keywords: AIV-H9N2; Gene expression; Histopathology; NDV; Omega-3; Quails.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Coturnix / growth & development*
  • Coturnix / immunology
  • Coturnix / virology*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype*
  • Influenza in Birds / immunology*
  • Newcastle Disease / immunology*
  • Newcastle disease virus*


  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3