A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain JS15-10A1T was isolated from oil production water. Its optimum growth was observed at 37 °C, pH 7.0, and 3% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JS15-10A1T showed the highest similarities with Pseudomonas parafulva CB-1T (97.6%) and P. fulva IAM 1529T (97.5%). In addition, phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analyses with concatenating 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoD, and rpoB genes indicated that strain JS15-10A1T was a member of genus Pseudomonas but discriminated from other species. Furthermore, whole-genome analyses revealed that average nucleotide identities and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain JS15-10A1T against its closest relatives were all below 76.7% and 21.1%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of strain JS15-10A1T were summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c/C18:1ω6c), C16:0, C12:0, C17:0 cyclo, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c), C12:0 3-OH, C10:0 3-OH, and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The predominant quinone was ubiquinone Q-9. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown amino-lipid, and two unidentified lipids. The genome DNA G + C content was 60.0 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, physiological, and chemotaxonomic analyses, it can be concluded that strain JS15-10A1T represents a novel species in genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas jilinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS15-10A1T (= CGMCC 1.16072T = LMG 30036T).