The use of tobacco is known to be one of the most preventable causes of morbidity and mortality and it has been a challenging concern for health systems. Pharmacological therapy has been identified as being an effective approach for tobacco smoking cessation; however, non-pharmacological therapy has also been suggested to be useful in assisting patients who are ready to quit. The management of smoking cessation has often been identified as an opportunity for pharmacists. Community pharmacists are in frequent contact with patients and are already well positioned to respond to immediate patient needs. It is recognized that tobacco is intertwined in the culture of Indigenous peoples resulting in higher smoking rates and higher disease burden compared to non-Indigenous populations. Therefore, it is crucial to identify any evidence-based approaches that can effectively reduce this gap by improving health equity. It is important to consider cultural differences when developing interventions for this particular population. Considering cultural factors and sensitivities, it is crucial to identify clinically effective and cost-effective interventions for smoking cessation in different subpopulations. In addition to population considerations, various jurisdictions have provided financial support for pharmacists to offer smoking cessation interventions, including counselling and offering pharmacological therapies, across Canada, but jurisdictions vary greatly in the implementation of these programs. Some jurisdictions have implemented pilot projects and evidence regarding the clinical and cost-effectiveness of these programs is emerging. The purpose of this report is to review the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions for smoking cessation.
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