Repair of Complex Transposition of Great Arteries: Up to 30 Years of Follow-up

Ann Thorac Surg. 2020 Feb;109(2):555-565. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.09.059. Epub 2019 Nov 9.


Background: To characterize treatment of transposition of great arteries with ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in Germany and to analyze late outcomes.

Methods: German Registry for Congenital Heart Defects data were searched for transposition of great arteries with ventricular septal defect and LVOTO. One hundred thirty-nine patients were treated at 15 institutions between 1968 and 2016. Risk factor analyses were performed for the primary endpoints of death and reoperation/reintervention.

Results: Follow-up was 88% complete, with a mean follow-up of 16 ± 7 years (median, 15 years [range, 1-48]) and a cumulative follow-up comprising 1739 patient-years. Atrial switches were performed in 15%, Rastelli procedure in 48%, Nikaidoh procedure in 9%, réparation a l'étage ventriculair (REV) in 8%, and arterial switch in 20%. Actuarial survival at 30 years was 86% (range, 83%-90%), with no difference between repairs. Freedom from primary reoperation was 17% (range, 12%-21%) at 30 years. Freedom from reoperation for LVOTO at 30 years was 74% (range, 70%-78%). Recurrent LVOTO was found in 9%, with risk factor diffuse subvalvular LVOTO (odds ratio, 9.8; P = .04). Late freedom from first reoperations other than right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit was 60% (range, 59%-61%), with predictors multiple ventricular septal defect (hazard ratio, 6; P = .03) and Rastelli procedure (hazard ratio, 12; P = .03). Absolute reoperation rates were lowest for REV procedure (16% at a mean of 12 years).

Conclusions: Long-term survival is good without detectable differences between operations. Since the early 2000s increasing use of Nikaidoh and REV procedures was obvious, with REV performing particularly well. Surgery-specific and -unspecific reoperations are most common after the Rastelli technique.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / complications*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Reoperation
  • Time Factors
  • Transposition of Great Vessels / complications*
  • Transposition of Great Vessels / surgery*
  • Ventricular Outflow Obstruction / complications*