Genomic analysis of the tribe Emesidini (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae)

Zootaxa. 2019 Sep 12;4668(4):zootaxa.4668.4.2. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4668.4.2.


We obtained and phylogenetically analyzed whole genome shotgun sequences of nearly all species from the tribe Emesidini Seraphim, Freitas Kaminski, 2018 (Riodinidae) and representatives from other Riodinidae tribes. We see that the recently proposed genera Neoapodemia Trujano, 2018 and Plesioarida Trujano García, 2018 are closely allied with Apodemia C. R. Felder, [1865] and are better viewed as its subgenera, new status. Overall, Emesis Fabricius, 1807 and Apodemia (even after inclusion of the two subgenera) are so phylogenetically close that several species have been previously swapped between these two genera. New combinations are: Apodemia (Neoapodemia) zela (Butler, 1870), Apodemia (Neoapodemia) ares (Edwards, 1882), and Apodemia (Neoapodemia) arnacis (Stichel, 1928) (not Emesis); and Emesis phyciodoides (Barnes Benjamin, 1924) (not Apodemia), assigned to each genus by their monophyly in genomic trees with the type species (TS) of the genus. Surprisingly, we find that Emesis emesia Hewitson, 1867 is not grouped with Emesis, but in addition to Apodemia forms a third lineage of similar rank, here named Curvie Grishin, gen. n. (TS: Symmachia emesia Hewitson, 1867). Furthermore, we partition Emesis into 6 subgenera (4 new): Emesis (TS: Hesperia ovidius Fabricius, 1793, a subjective junior synonym of Papilio cereus Linnaeus, 1767), Aphacitis Hübner, [1819] (TS: Papilio dyndima Cramer, [1780], a subjective junior synonym of Papilio lucinda Cramer, [1775]), Poeasia Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Emesis poeas Godman, [1901]), Mandania Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Papilio mandana Cramer, [1780]), Brimia Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Emesis brimo Godman Salvin, 1889), and Tenedia Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Emesis tenedia C. R. Felder, 1861). Next, genomic comparison of primary type specimens suggests new status for Emesis vimena Schaus, 1928 as a subspecies of Emesis brimo Godman Salvin, 1889, Emesis adelpha Le Cerf, 1958 with E. a. vicaria Le Cerf, 1958 are subspecies of Emesis heteroclita Stichel, 1929, and Emesis tristis Stichel, 1929 is not a synonym of E. brimo vimena but of Emesis lupina Godman Salvin, 1886. A new status of a species is given to the following taxa: Emesis furor A. Butler H. Druce, 1872 (not a subspecies of E. mandana (Cramer, 1780)), Emesis melancholica Stichel, 1916 (not a subspecies of E. lupina Godman Salvin, 1886), Emesis progne (Godman, 1903) (not a subspecies of E. brimo Godman Salvin, 1889), and Emesis opaca Stichel, 1910 (not a synonym of E. lucinda (Cramer, 1775)). Emesis castigata diringeri Gallard 2008 is a subjective junior synonym of E. opaca, new status. Finally, Xanthosa Grishin, gen. n. (TS: Charmona xanthosa Stichel, 1910) is proposed for a sister lineage of Sertania Callaghan Kaminski, 2017 and Befrostia Grishin, gen. n. (TS: Emesis elegia Stichel, 1929) is proposed for a clade without apparent phylogenetic affinities that we place in Befrostiini Grishin, trib. n. In conclusion, genomic data reveal a number of errors in the current classification of Emesidini and allow us to confidently reclassify the tribe partitioning it in three genera: Apodemia, Curvie gen. n. and Emesis.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, biodiversity, genomic sequencing, museomics, phylogeny, metalmark butterflies.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Distribution
  • Animals
  • Butterflies*
  • Genomics
  • Phylogeny
  • Sea Anemones*