Background: While the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is routinely used in Canada and some other countries to prevent pneumococcal infection in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients develop a suboptimal antibody response to PPV23 due to their immune dysfunction. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has superior immunogenicity in some categories of immunocompromised adults; however, its effect on the immune response in CKD patients has only been addressed by two recent studies with conflicting results. The effect of PPV23 or PCV13 on B cells in these patients has not been previously studied. We studied the absolute numbers and proportions of B cells and subpopulations in two groups of adult patients with severe CKD pre- and 7 days post-immunization with PCV13: pneumococcal vaccine naïve and previously immunized with PPV23 (over one year ago).
Results: PPV23 immunized patients had significantly lower proportions and absolute numbers of class switched memory (CD19 + CD27 + IgM-), as well as lower absolute numbers of IgM memory (CD19 + CD27 + IgM+) and class switched B cells (CD19 + CD27-IgM-) compared to PPV23 naïve patients. Following PCV13 immunization, the differences in absolute numbers of B-cell subpopulations between groups remained significant. The PPV23 immunized group had higher proportions of CD5- B cells along with lower proportions and absolute numbers of CD5+ B cells compared to PPV23 naïve patients both pre- and post-immunization with PCV13. However, previous PPV23 immunization did not have a noticeable effect on the numbers of total IgG or serotype 6B and 14 specific antibody-secreting cells detected 7 days post-immunization with PCV13. Nevertheless, fold increase in anti-serotype 14 IgG concentrations 28 days post-PCV13 was greater in PPV23 naïve than in previously immunized patients.
Conclusions: The results suggest that immunization with PPV23 may result in long-term changes in B-cell subpopulations such as increased prevalence of CD5- B cells and decreased prevalence of class switched memory B cells in the peripheral blood. Because previous immunization with PPV23 in patients with CKD is associated with a significant decrease in the total class switched memory B cells in response to subsequent immunization with PCV13, this may reduce PCV13 immunogenicity in the setting of PPV23 followed by PCV13.
Trial registration: Registered February 24, 2015 at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02370069).
Keywords: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13); 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23); B cells; Chronic kidney disease (CKD); Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT); Flow cytometry; Memory B cells; Streptococcus pneumoniae; T-cell dependent response; T-cell independent response.