This 2019 focused update to the American Heart Association pediatric advanced life support guidelines follows the 2018 and 2019 systematic reviews performed by the Pediatric Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. It aligns with the continuous evidence review process of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, with updates published when the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation completes a literature review based on new published evidence. This update provides the evidence review and treatment recommendations for advanced airway management in pediatric cardiac arrest, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric cardiac arrest, and pediatric targeted temperature management during post-cardiac arrest care. The writing group analyzed the systematic reviews and the original research published for each of these topics. For airway management, the writing group concluded that it is reasonable to continue bag-mask ventilation (versus attempting an advanced airway such as endotracheal intubation) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. When extracorporeal membrane oxygenation protocols and teams are readily available, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be considered for patients with cardiac diagnoses and in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, it is reasonable to use targeted temperature management of 32°C to 34°C followed by 36°C to 37.5°C, or to use targeted temperature management of 36°C to 37.5°C, for pediatric patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or in-hospital cardiac arrest.
Keywords: AHA Scientific Statements; advanced cardiac life support; airway management; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; heart arrest; hypothermia, induced; pediatrics.