Objective: To investigate factors associated with development of early and late pulmonary hypertension (E/LPH) in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Study design: A retrospective case-control observational study of preterm infants with BPD admitted to a level IV referral neonatal intensive care unit over 5 years. We compared pre- and postnatal characteristics between infants with or without BPD-associated EPH and LPH.
Results: Fifty-nine out of 220 infants (26.8%) had LPH, while 85 out of 193 neonates (44%) had EPH. On multiple logistic regression, novel factors associated with development of BPD-LPH included presence of maternal diabetes, EPH, tracheostomy, tracheitis, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, grade ≥3) and systemic steroid use. For EPH, these were maternal diabetes, IVH grade ≥3, high frequency ventilator use, and absence of maternal antibiotics use.
Conclusion: We identified novel factors and confirmed previously established factors with development of LPH and EPH, which can help develop a screening strategy in BPD patients.