Running economy - a comprehensive review for passive force generation

J Exerc Rehabil. 2019 Oct 28;15(5):640-646. doi: 10.12965/jer.1938406.203. eCollection 2019 Oct.


Running economy is considered a major determinant of distance running performance. Enhancing the body's ability for passive force generation could have a positive effect on running economy by minimizing the energy cost required for the propulsion of the body. Thus, the purpose of this comprehensive review was to provide a list of modifiable factors that promote this ability. The interest was focused on lower-limb stiffness, as it is a factor of great influence and at the same time can be modified with training and specific biomechanical adjustments. Although it appears that no clear instructions can be provided to athletes and coaches, it should be noted that careful consideration of the runners' anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical characteristics are necessary for optimal performance results.

Keywords: Lower-limb stiffness; Passive force generation; Running economy.

Publication types

  • Review