This article is concerned with observations in 17 patients with renal fusion and ectopic abnormalities: horseshoe kidney in 13 patients, crossed ectopia with fusion in two, pancake kidney in one, and pelvic kidney in one. Three patients had occlusive disease, one may have had renal artery occlusion, and 13 had aneurysms--three thoracoabdominal and 10 infrarenal. Rupture of aneurysm had occurred in one patient at each level and six patients had had one or more previous attempts at aneurysmal removal. Diagnosis and evaluation were made with the aid of intravenous pyelography, retrograde pyelography, CT scanning, and at operation (three patients). Three patients had two normally located right and left renal arteries. Twelve patients had one to three additional aberrant arteries arising from the aorta and iliac arteries. One patient's renal blood supply arose from multiple aberrant arteries. Ureters crossed the midline in two patients. Treatment of occlusive disease consisted of endarterectomy in one patient and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in two. Aneurysms were treated by graft replacement with retroperitoneal exposure in seven patients and transabdominal exposure in six. One patient was treated medically. Renal isthmus division was employed in only two patients and involved accessory arteries were reattached to the grafts in all cases. Death from myocardial infarction occurred in two patients (12%). Eleven patients subjected to operation were alive 6 months to 14 years later.