Accessible digital assessments of temporal, spatial, or movement concepts for profoundly motor impaired and non-verbal individuals: a pilot study

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2021 Apr;16(3):350-360. doi: 10.1080/17483107.2019.1683240. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Abstract

Purpose: Here we present a study of two new Assistive Technology (AT) accessible digital assessments which were developed to address the current paucity of (English) spoken language comprehension assessments accessible to individuals who are both non-verbal and have profound motor impairments. Such individuals may rely heavily upon AT for communication and control. However, many assessments require that responses are given either verbally, by physical pointing or manipulating physical objects. A further problem with many assessments is their reliance upon static images to represent language components involving temporal, spatial or movement concepts. These new assessments aim to address some of these issues.

Materials and methods: The assessments were used with 2 young people who are non-verbal and have profound motor impairments (GMFCS level IV/V) and who use eye gaze as their primary method of communication and access. One assessment uses static images and the other short video clips to represent concepts containing temporal, spatial or movement elements. The assessments were carried out with each participant, both before and after an intervention, as part of a larger study.

Results: The assessments were accessible using AT (eye gaze) for both participants, although assessment scores varied. The design of the assessments particularly suited one participant who scored near maximum, but they appeared less suitable for the other participant.

Conclusions: Making assessments AT accessible removes a barrier to assessing aspects of the spoken language comprehension abilities of some. Video may be a better medium for representing certain concepts within assessments compared with static images.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe new assessments provided a deeper understanding of two members of a group who are traditionally difficult to assess, using two alternative physically accessible methods of assessing the spoken language comprehension of the target group;Accessible assessments are important for assessing complex individuals in order to identify knowledge limitations and set therapy (and education) goals;The alternative access features of communication software can provide a "wrapper" for providing accessibility features to assessments;Video clips may be a better means of representing certain concepts in assessments compared to their static equivalents;Ensuring that assessments are physically accessible is sufficient for the assessment of some individuals, but for some "cognitive" accessibility also needs to be considered.

Keywords: Assistive Technology; Spoken language comprehension; cerebral palsy; digital assessment; disability; eye gaze; non-verbal.