Background: Hyperuricemia would be a risk factor for the development/progression of CKD. However, several studies showed U-shape association between serum uric acid level and renal impairment, suggesting that hypouricemia was rather associated with renal dysfunction. Perhaps, there is the optimal target level of serum UA for renal function.
Methods: The Target-UA study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eligible CKD patients (eGFR ≥ 30, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urine protein < 0.5 g/gCr or urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) < 300 mg/gCr) with serum UA ≥ 8.0 mg/dL (≥ 7.0 mg/dl: under the treatment) will be enrolled and be randomly assigned to the intensive therapy group (target serum UA level ≥ 4.0 mg/dL, < 5.0 mg/dL) or the standard therapy group (serum UA level ≥ 6.0 mg/dL, < 7.0 mg/dL). Topiroxostat, a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor, will be administered to treat hyperuricemia. The primary endpoint is a change in logarithmic value of urine ACR between baseline and week 52 of treatment. The secondary endpoints include changes in serum UA, eGFR, urine protein, lipid profile, and onset of composite cardiovascular events, renal events, gouty arthritis, and attack of urolithiasis. The number of subjects has been set to be 185 in each group for a total of 370.
Discussion: This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to determine the optimal target level of serum UA for renal protection and is expected to lead to progress in CKD treatment.
Trial registration: (UMIN000026741 and jRCTs051180146).
Keywords: Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Topiroxostat; Uric acid.