Improvements in Glycemic, Micronutrient, and Mineral Indices in Arab Adults With Pre-Diabetes Post-Lifestyle Modification Program

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 15;11(11):2775. doi: 10.3390/nu11112775.


The present study aimed to investigate the changes in dietary patterns of adult Saudis with prediabetes who underwent a six-month lifestyle modification program. A total of 160 Saudis with prediabetes (baseline fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L), aged 20-60 years, were enrolled in one of the two arms: A one-time general advice about lifestyle modification (GA group) at orientation or a well-structured and monitored nutrition and lifestyle counseling for six months (guidance group). Fasting blood samples and a dietary recall for daily intakes of macro/micronutrients using a validated computerized food database "ESHA-the Food Processor Nutrition Analysis program" were collected pre- and post-intervention. Compliance to reference daily intake (RDI) was also calculated at both time points. At baseline, overall, severe deficiencies in the majority of micronutrient intakes were observed. Post intervention, clinically significant improvements in the glycemic indices (fasting glucose and insulin resistance) were seen over time in the guidance group. Also, significant improvements in dietary habits and physical activity levels were more apparent in the guidance group than the GA group, particularly in the daily intakes of total carbohydrate (46.9% compliance post vs. 20.3% at baseline); dietary fiber (21.9% vs. 3.1%); and some micronutrients like vitamin B6 (21.3% vs. 6.7%), vitamin B12 (45.3% vs. 28%), vitamin C (21.9% vs. 7.8%), riboflavin (40% vs. 10.7%), niacin (41.3% vs. 14.7%), magnesium (18.8% vs. 4.7%), iron (54.7% vs. 34.4%), and copper (37.3% vs. 13.3%). The study highlights the effects of a six-month lifestyle modification program in improving dietary micronutrient intakes of Saudis with prediabetes. Since micronutrient intake was observed to be low, fortification of these micronutrients in the Saudi diet is recommended.

Keywords: lifestyle modification; micronutrients; minerals; nutrition guidance; pre-diabetes; recommended dietary intakes.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arabs
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Counseling / methods
  • Diet / methods*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Minerals / blood*
  • Prediabetic State / blood
  • Prediabetic State / therapy*
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Micronutrients
  • Minerals