Management of Children with Tuberculosis

Clin Chest Med. 2019 Dec;40(4):797-810. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2019.08.003.


Children carry a significant tuberculosis disease burden in settings with poor epidemic control and high levels of transmission. Even in high-resource settings, the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children can be challenging, but an accurate diagnosis can be achieved by adopting a systematic approach. This review outlines the general principles of tuberculosis prevention in children, including epidemic control, infection control, contact tracing and preventive therapy, and vaccination; diagnosing pediatric tuberculosis, including specimen collection and microbiological confirmation, highlighting key differences from adults; and tuberculosis treatment in children, including treatment of severe disease that mostly occurs in young children and drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Keywords: Child; Diagnosis; Management; Multi-drug resistant; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Prevention; Treatment; Tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antitubercular Agents / pharmacology
  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Tuberculosis / therapy*


  • Antitubercular Agents