Parkinson Disease Epidemiology, Pathology, Genetics, and Pathophysiology

Clin Geriatr Med. 2020 Feb;36(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2019.08.002. Epub 2019 Aug 24.


Parkinson disease is a complex, age-related, neurodegenerative disease associated with dopamine deficiency and both motor and nonmotor deficits. Many environmental and genetic factors influence Parkinson disease risk, with different factors predominating in different patients. These factors converge on specific pathways, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein aggregation, impaired autophagy, and neuroinflammation. Ultimately, treatment of Parkinson disease may focus on targeted therapies for pathophysiologically defined subtypes of Parkinson disease patients.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Genetics; Mitochondrial; Neuroprotection; Parkinson disease; Pathology; Pathophysiology; Synuclein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Humans
  • Metabolism
  • Neuroimmunomodulation
  • Parkinson Disease* / epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease* / etiology
  • Parkinson Disease* / therapy
  • Patient Care Management / methods*