Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current knowledge of HIV and tissue parasite co-infection in the context of transmission enhancement, clinical characteristics, treatment, relapse, and clinical outcomes.
Recent findings: The pathophysiology and clinical sequelae of tissue parasites in people living with HIV (PLWH) have been well described for only a handful of organisms, primarily protozoa such as malaria and leishmaniasis. Available published data indicate that the interactions between HIV and tissue parasites are highly variable depending on the infecting organism and the degree of host immunosuppression. Some tissue parasites, such as Schistosoma species, are known to facilitate the transmission of HIV. Conversely, uncontrolled HIV infection can lead to the earlier and more severe presentation of a variety of tissue parasites and can make treatment more challenging. Although much investigation remains to be done to better understand the interactions between consequences of HIV and tissue parasite co-infection, it is important to disseminate the current knowledge on this topic to health care providers in order to prevent, treat, and control infections in PLWH.
Keywords: AIDS; HIV; Infectious diseases; Tissue parasite; Tropical.