High Dietary Sodium Intake is Associated with Shorter Event-Free Survival in Patients with Heart Failure and Comorbid Diabetes

Clin Nurs Res. 2021 Feb;30(2):154-160. doi: 10.1177/1054773819888743. Epub 2019 Nov 18.


The aim was to determine whether 24-hour urine sodium excretion predicted event-free survival of patients with heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty-four hour urine sodium, as an indicator of dietary sodium, was collected from 107 patients with HF and comorbid DM. Patients were followed for a median period of 337 days to determine time to the first event of either all-cause hospitalization or cardiac-related mortality. There were 44 patients (41%) who had an event of death or hospitalization. Cox regression showed that higher urine sodium (>3.8 gm/day) was associated with 2.8 times greater risk for an event than lower urine sodium after controlling for age, gender, New York Heart Association class (I/II vs. III/IV), left ventricular ejection fraction, and body mass index. These data suggest that dietary sodium restriction may be beneficial for patients with HF and DM.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus; dietary sodium intake; health outcome; heart failure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Sodium, Dietary*
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left


  • Sodium, Dietary