Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 Nov 1;10:2436.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02436. eCollection 2019.

Camera Stabilization in 360° Videos and Its Impact on Cyber Sickness, Environmental Perceptions, and Psychophysiological Responses to a Simulated Nature Walk: A Single-Blinded Randomized Trial

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Camera Stabilization in 360° Videos and Its Impact on Cyber Sickness, Environmental Perceptions, and Psychophysiological Responses to a Simulated Nature Walk: A Single-Blinded Randomized Trial

Sigbjørn Litleskare et al. Front Psychol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Immersive virtual environments (IVEs) technology has emerged as a valuable tool to environmental psychology research in general, and specifically to studies of human-nature interactions. However, virtual reality is known to induce cyber sickness, which limits its application and highlights the need for scientific strategies to optimize virtual experiences. In this study, we assessed the impact of improved camera stability on cyber sickness, presence, and psychophysiological responses to a simulated nature walk. In a single-blinded trial, 50 participants were assigned to watch, using a head-mounted display, one of two 10-min 360° videos showing a first-person nature walk: one video contained small-magnitude scene oscillations associated with cameraman locomotion, while in the other video, the oscillations were drastically reduced thanks to an electric stabilizer and a dolly. Measurements of cyber sickness (in terms of both occurrence and severity of symptoms), perceptions of the IVE (presence and perceived environmental restorativeness), and indicators of psychophysiological responses [affect, enjoyment, and heart rate (HR)] were collected before and/or after the exposure. Compared to the low-stability (LS) condition, in the high-stability (HS) condition, participants reported lower severity of cyber sickness symptoms. The delta values for pre-post changes in affect for the LS video revealed a deterioration of participants' affect profile with a significant increase in ratings of negative affect and fatigue, and decrease in ratings of positive affect. In contrast, there were no pre-post changes in affect for the HS video. No differences were found between the HS and LS conditions with respect to presence, perceived environmental restorativeness, enjoyment, and HR. Cyber sickness was significantly correlated with all components of affect and enjoyment, but not with presence, perceived environmental restorativeness, or HR. These findings demonstrate that improved camera stability in 360° videos is crucial to reduce cyber sickness symptoms and negative affective responses in IVE users. The lack of associations between improved stability and presence, perceived environmental restorativeness, and HR suggests that other aspects of IVE technology must be taken into account in order to improve virtual experiences of nature.

Keywords: environmental perception; green exercise; immersive virtual environments; restorative environments; virtual reality.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Flow diagram showing participants enrolled, allocated to condition, and included in the analyses (Schulz et al., 2010).
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Comparison of the severity of cyber sickness symptoms measured with the Simulator sickness questionnaire after exposure to a low- or high-stability 360° video. SSQ Total = Total score (n = 50; medians and IQRs). = significant difference from low-stability video at the p < 0.05 level.
FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3
Comparison of ratings of presence associated with exposure to a low- or high-stability 360° video (n = 50; medians and IQRs).
FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4
Comparison of ratings of the four components of the perceived restorativeness scale (PER) associated with a low- or high-stability 360° video (n = 50; medians and IQRs).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 article

References

    1. Akiduki H., Nishiike S., Watanabe H., Matsuoka K., Kubo T., Takeda N. (2003). Visual-vestibular conflict induced by virtual reality in humans. Neurosci. Lett. 340 197–200. 10.1016/s0304-3940(03)00098-3 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Allen A. P., Kennedy P. J., Cryan J. F., Dinan T. G., Clarke G. (2014). Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the trier social stress test. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 38 94–124. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.11.005 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Allen B., Hanley T., Rokers B., Green C. S. (2016). Visual 3D motion acuity predicts discomfort in 3D stereoscopic environments. Entertain. Comput. 13 1–9. 10.1016/j.entcom.2016.01.001 - DOI
    1. Barton J., Pretty J. (2010). What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? a multi-study analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 3947–3955. 10.1021/es903183r - DOI - PubMed
    1. Bonato F., Bubka A., Paumisano S. (2009). Combined pitch and roll and cybersickness in a virtual environment. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 80 941–945. 10.3357/Asem.2394.2009 - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback