Non-invasive assessment of liver alterations in Senning and Mustard patients

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2019 Oct;9(Suppl 2):S198-S208. doi: 10.21037/cdt.2019.07.10.


Background: Adults with congenital heart disease and ventricular dysfunction are prone to liver congestion, leading to fibrosis or cirrhosis but little is known about the prevalence of liver disease in atrial switch patients. Liver impairment may develop due to increased systemic venous pressures. This prospective study aimed to assess non-invasively hepatic abnormalities in adults who underwent Senning or Mustard procedures.

Methods: Hepatic involvement was assessed non-invasively clinically by laboratory analysis, hepatic fibrotic markers, sonography, and liver stiffness measurements [transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI)].

Results: Overall, 24 adults who had undergone atrial switch operation (13 Senning, 11 Mustard; four female; median age 27.8 years; range 24-45 years) were enrolled. In liver stiffness measurements, only three patients had values within the normal reference. All other patients showed mild, moderate or severe liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, respectively. Using imaging and laboratory analysis, 71% of the subjects had signs of liver fibrosis (46%) or cirrhosis (25%).

Conclusions: Non-invasive screening for liver congestion, fibrosis or cirrhosis could be meaningful in targeted screening for hepatic impairment in patients with TGA-ASO. As expert knowledge is essential, patients should be regularly controlled in highly specialised centres with cooperations between congenital cardiologists and hepatologists.

Keywords: Adults; Mustard procedure; atrial switch operation; liver impairment; transient elastography (TE).