Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses of Vegetables and Beans Powders Supplemented Chapattis in Healthy Humans: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

Biomed Res Int. 2019 Oct 13:2019:7425367. doi: 10.1155/2019/7425367. eCollection 2019.


Vegetables and beans are nutrient-dense foods with innate potential to mediate diabetes in a variety of cultures. The present study aims at evaluating vegetables and beans for assessing their glycemic index and response in raising glucose levels in human model. Powdered formulations of vegetables and beans were designed to modulate glycemic response of carbohydrate-rich staples. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted in healthy young adults (n = 24) who were challenged with vegetable powder-supplemented chapatti (VPSC), bean powder-supplemented chapatti (BPSC) and all-purpose wheat flour chapatti (APFC) to evaluate their postprandial glucose (PPG) and postprandial insulin (PPI) responses. In comparison with APFC, feeding VPSC and BPSC to healthy volunteers anticipated significant reduction in PPG (44% reduction in incremental area under the curve (AUC) for VPSC and 46% reduction in incremental AUC for BPSC, p = 0.005). Likewise, significant reduction in PPI levels was observed for VPSC (59%, p = 0.012) and BPSC (47%, p = 0.002) compared to APFC-treated group. The study concludes wheat flour enrichment with vegetables and beans powder as a viable approach to develop cost effective and culturally acceptable low glycemic foods bearing acceptable sensory attributes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / physiology*
  • Bread
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Flour
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glycemic Index / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period / physiology
  • Powders / administration & dosage*
  • Triticum / chemistry
  • Vegetables / chemistry*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Insulin
  • Powders
  • Glucose