Several studies since the 1990s have demonstrated that children increase their body mass index at a faster rate during summer months compared with the school year, leading some to conclude that the out-of-school summer environment is responsible. Other studies, however, have suggested that seasonality may play a role in children's height and weight changes across the year. This article reviews evidence for seasonal differences in the rate of children's height and weight gain and proposes potential physiological mechanisms that may explain these seasonal variations.
Keywords: children; circannual rhythms; growth patterns; seasonality.
© 2019 World Obesity Federation.