Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature

Biomolecules. 2019 Nov 14;9(11):738. doi: 10.3390/biom9110738.


α- and β-pinene are well-known representatives of the monoterpenes group, and are found in many plants' essential oils. A wide range of pharmacological activities have been reported, including antibiotic resistance modulation, anticoagulant, antitumor, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Leishmania, and analgesic effects. This article aims to summarize the most prominent effects of α- and β-pinene, namely their cytogenetic, gastroprotective, anxiolytic, cytoprotective, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective effects, as well as their effects against H2O2-stimulated oxidative stress, pancreatitis, stress-stimulated hyperthermia, and pulpal pain. Finally, we will also discuss the bioavailability, administration, as well as their biological activity and clinical applications.

Keywords: bioavailability; clinical studies; cytotoxicity; pharmacological activities; α-pinene, β-pinene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bicyclic Monoterpenes / therapeutic use*


  • Bicyclic Monoterpenes
  • beta-pinene
  • alpha-pinene