Understanding the Cryoglobulinemias

Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2019 Nov 19;21(11):60. doi: 10.1007/s11926-019-0859-0.


Purpose of the review: Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins with the ability to precipitate at temperatures <37 °C. They are related to hematological disorders, infections [especially hepatitis C virus (HCV)], and autoimmune diseases. In this article, the state of the art on Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis (CV), in a helpful and schematic way, with a special focus on HCV related Mixed Cryoglobulinemia treatment are reviewed.

Recent findings: Direct - acting antivirals (DAA) against HCV have emerged as an important key in HCV treatment to related Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis, and should be kept in mind as the initial treatment in non-severe manifestations. On the other hand, a recent consensus panel has published their recommendations for treatment in severe and life threatening manifestations of Mixed Cryoglobulinemias. HCV-Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is the most frequent form of CV. There are new treatment options in HCV-CV with DAA, with an important number of patients achieving complete response and sustained virologic response (SVR). In cases of severe forms of CV, treatment with Rituximab and PLEX are options. The lack of data on maintenance therapy could impulse future studies in this setting.

Keywords: Direct-acting antivirals; HCV; Mixed Cryoglobulinemia; Rituximab; Type I Cryoglobulinemia; gC1qR.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cryoglobulinemia / diagnosis
  • Cryoglobulinemia / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vasculitis / diagnosis
  • Vasculitis / drug therapy*


  • Antiviral Agents