Extracellular Matrix-Based Biomaterials and Their Influence Upon Cell Behavior

Ann Biomed Eng. 2020 Jul;48(7):2132-2153. doi: 10.1007/s10439-019-02408-9. Epub 2019 Nov 18.


Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used for the repair and remodeling of injured tissue. The clinical outcomes associated with implantation of ECM-based materials range from unacceptable to excellent. The variable clinical results are largely due to differences in the preparation of the material, including characteristics of the source tissue, the method and efficacy of decellularization, and post-decellularization processing steps. The mechanisms by which ECM scaffolds promote constructive tissue remodeling include mechanical support, degradation and release of bioactive molecules, recruitment and differentiation of endogenous stem/progenitor cells, and modulation of the immune response toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. The methods of ECM preparation and the impact of these methods on the quality of the final product are described herein. Examples of favorable cellular responses of immune and stem cells associated with constructive tissue remodeling of ECM bioscaffolds are described.

Keywords: Biologic scaffold; Constructive remodeling; Decellularization; Host response.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials*
  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Extracellular Matrix*
  • Humans
  • Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Tissue Scaffolds*


  • Biocompatible Materials